Such catches account for 50–70 percent of total catches in area 87. It, or similar technologies, should be able to provide near-real-time monitoring of catch volume by fishery together with fishing effort. Through building partnerships with other United Nations agencies and multilateral development banks, this country-led and country-owned initiative identifies best opportunities to raise incomes and reduce inequities and vulnerabilities, while ensuring that United Nations’ standards are fully reflected in policies that advance all three pillars of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental. In the past decade, FAO has invested a great deal of human and financial resources in developing new methods in pursuit of increased coverage of its assessment and monitoring of global fish stocks. Friedman, K., Garcia, S. & Rice, J. [Cited 20 March 2020]. World Bank predicts sharpest decline of remittances in recent history. In 2017, among FAO’s Major Fishing Areas, the Mediterranean and Black Sea had the highest percentage (62.5 percent) of stocks fished at unsustainable levels, followed by the Southeast Pacific (54.5 percent) and Southwest Atlantic (53.3 percent). The main reason for this decline is the growth of Africa’s population outpacing the growth in supply. Concurrently, debate on the utility, costs and benefits of sustainability certification in fisheries and aquaculture has continued, and various improvement programmes have stemmed from concerns over challenges facing developing-country producers in this regard. It may also be of interest to professionals in FAO and other international and national agencies responsible for providing support at the country level, as well as to universities and research institutions. In contrast, the Eastern Central Pacific (Area 77), Southwest Pacific (Area 81), Northeast Pacific (Area 67), and Western Central Pacific (Area 71) had the lowest proportion (13–22 percent) of stocks fished at biologically unsustainable levels. 2020. The VGMFG recognize the importance of identifying ownership of the fishing gear, its location and the legality of its use. The World Trade Organization (WTO) principle of most-favoured nations generally prevents its members from discriminating against trading partners, but tariffs can be reduced or removed as part of free-trade agreements or to facilitate market access for developing countries through the application of preferential tariff regimes such as the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). However, other uses of fish by-products have been gaining attention over the past two decades, as they can represent a significant source of nutrition and can now be used more efficiently as a result of improved processing technologies (Al Khawli et al., 2019). Compared with the 2018 edition of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture,1 production data for both capture fisheries and aquaculture in the 2020 edition reflect a downward revision for the years 2009–2016 as a consequence of revised data for China. Given the timeline and diversity of the interventions, final results are expected for the second half of 2020. Unregulated fisheries on the high seas, in some cases involving straddling and highly migratory fish species, were also becoming a matter of increasing concern. Marine capture production: major producing countries and territories, 3. Basic knowledge on the pathogen (e.g. This highlighted the need for greater harmonization of reporting procedures nationally and globally. 650. The sustained high prices for bivalves have catalysed expansion of the bivalve aquaculture industry in various regions. 2030 AGENDA2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, ALDFGabandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear, ASFAAquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts, ASFISAquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System, CITESConvention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CMSConvention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, CODECode of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, CWPCoordinating Working Party on Fishery Statistics, FIRMSFisheries and Resources Monitoring System, GESAMPUnited Nation’s Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection, GIAHSGlobally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems, GLOBAL RECORDGlobal Record of Fishing Vessels, Refrigerated Transport Vessels and Supply Vessels, GRSFGlobal Record of Stocks and Fisheries, GSSIGlobal Sustainable Seafood Initiative, HACCPHazard Analysis Critical Control Point (system), HSHarmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, IUUillegal, unreported and unregulated (fishing), OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECMother effective area-based conservation measure, PMP/ABProgressive Management Pathway for Improving Aquaculture Biosecurity, PSMAAgreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing, RAIPrinciples for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems, RFMO/Aregional fisheries management organization/arrangement, RSNRegional Fishery Body Secretariats Network, SSF GUIDELINESVoluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication, UNCLOSUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, VGGTVoluntary Guidelines for Responsible Governance of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security, VGMFGVoluntary Guidelines for the Marking of Fishing Gear, WSSDWorld Summit on Sustainable Development. Many wholesale and retail fish markets are often congested and crowded, presenting risks to traders, most of whom are women, as well as to consumers, who take significant risks to maintain their livelihoods and to buy fresh fish to eat. These risk-based approaches, as sustainability measures in fisheries, are often integral to countries’ governance frameworks. Seaweed farming is practised in a relatively smaller numbers of countries, dominated by countries in East and Southeast Asia. Fishing in India is a major industry employing 145 million people. Another issue linked to product legality is food fraud. In the future, AIS should be able to support fisheries management in the face of uncertainty and changing climate. Sinclair, M. & Valdimarsson, G. 2003. Sustainability in action. Guided by its Members and with concern to respond to global societal demand, FAO has developed a wide range of data and information products in order to establish baselines, monitor changes, and support decision-making. 2020b. Other technological innovations focus on increasing fishing efficiency and reducing environmental or ecological impacts. The study also found that the large vessels making up about 5 percent of the fleet constituted more than 33 percent of the total engine power. ), has resulted in a steady increase in the rates of per capita consumption of these species groups in recent years. 10 Cured means dried, salted, in brine, fermented, smoked, etc. Utilization of world fisheries and aquaculture production: developed versus developing countries, 2018, 25. Despite the vast geographical extension of the ABNJ, the current understanding of their role, influence and importance to coastal waters is limited. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Catches of tunas continued to increase, reaching their highest levels in 2018 at about 7.9 million tonnes, largely as a result of growing catches in the Western and Central Pacific (3.5 million tonnes in 2018, compared with 2.6 million tonnes in the mid-2000s). FAO. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. BOX 16FAO’S AQUACULTURE–HORTICULTURE APPROACH IN REMOTE AREAS IN WEST AFRICA. Enhance efforts towards social sustainability in fisheries and aquaculturePromote decent work and facilitate access to social protection programmes for fishers and their communities, reduce the high number of accidents and fatalities by supporting safety at sea. Therefore transhipment can become an entry point for catches originating from IUU fishing activities into the market. There is emerging guidance available on the application of these approaches (Watkiss, Ventura and Poulain, 2019), although to date this has not been widely applied for fisheries and aquaculture. Code of Practice for Fish and Fishery Products. In addition, these assessments for each FAO major marine fishing area have laid solid foundations for the estimation of the sustainability multiplier – an important parameter for SDG Indicator 14.7.1. Coordinated global capacity building programmes to significantly improve fisheries sustainability are critical in this regard, with specific focus in regions where achieving sustainability is challenging, or where fisheries sustainability status is unknown, and particular attention to data-limited fisheries in developing regions. Report of the Advisory Roundtable on the Assessment of Inland Fisheries, Rome, Italy, 8-10 May 2018. In the context of fisheries and aquaculture, the SDGs promote environmentally and socially sustainable production systems. In many cases, the application of an initial analysis as set out above may be sufficient to identify and plan adaptation road maps. 2018c. (also available at Additional efforts to better understand and improve secure tenure, user and access rights systems have included FAO conferences and meetings, most recently: Tenure and User Rights in Fisheries 2018: Achieving Sustainable Development Goals by 2030; and Friends of User Rights 2019 Meeting. ▸ Early interventions to ensure that adaptation is considered in early decisions that have a long lifetime or a risk of lock-in, e.g. General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean, Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission, Fisheries Committee for the West Central Gulf of Guinea) or informal information-exchange working groups (e.g. 569. 2020. The main factors behind this increase will be a combination of high demand resulting from rising incomes and urbanization, linked with the expansion of fish production, improvements in post-harvest methods and distribution channels expanding the commercialization of fish. Many of the data collection systems for inland waters are unreliable, or in some cases non-existent, while improvements in reporting may also mask trends in individual countries. 65. 2017: The impact of disasters and crises on agriculture and food security. Benefits of consuming fish include: reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease; improved maternal health during pregnancy and lactation; improved physical and cognitive development during early childhood; and mitigation of health risks associated with anaemia, stunting and child blindness. Over time, the adoption of good management practices and certification schemes has decreased the volumes of unsustainable catches of species targeted for reduction to fishmeal. In 2030, about 59 percent of the fish available for human consumption is expected to originate from aquaculture production, up from 52 percent in 2018 (Figure 56). One such area is the collection of data on small-scale fishers, which need to be systemized, including data on the most vulnerable and post-harvest workers. In 2018, aquaculture fish production was dominated by finfish (54.3 million tonnes – 47 million tonnes from inland aquaculture and 7.3 million tonnes from marine and coastal aquaculture), molluscs, mainly bivalves (17.7 million tonnes), and crustaceans (9.4 million tonnes). Both natural and anthropogenic environmental drivers affect aquatic habitats, water flows, habitat connectivity and water quality. 2011. Review of the state of world marine fishery resources. In addition, other related global instruments that serve as guidance frameworks for secure tenure, user and access rights include the ones listed above: the VGGT; the SSF Guidelines; the FAO Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security; and the CFS-RAI. 2018. This vision needs to recognize the crucial role of fisheries in future economic development, food, nutrition and livelihood security, in the context of the multiple environmental impacts that humans have to address, on land and in water, in order to place humanity on a more sustainable footing. Over the years, catches of major marine species have registered marked variations, as well as fluctuations, among the top-producing countries. These three measures have gained wide acceptance and resulted in bycatch reductions in industrial and semi-industrial fleets of 25–50 percent, with acceptable levels of target species losses. For inland fisheries, the countries account for 89 percent of global inland catch and 96 percent of inland fishers and post-harvest workers. Rome. However, these methods have limitations and should be used with caution. Hence, they are excluded from the discussion in this section. Navigating this crossroads demands a vision that outlines how the sector can respond to the complex and rapidly changing challenges facing society. The compilation of the FBS, according to FAO’s current methodology, is a statistical exercise drawing together data from various sectors on the basis of information available on an annual basis. 2012. Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) continue to promote “mainstreaming of biodiversity for well-being”, the theme of the CBD 2016 global conference. The availability of labour and aquaculture inputs needed for production (e.g. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(4): 2218–2224 [online]. & Shelton, C. 2018. Oct 26-29, 2020. Demersal stocks of the region have experienced higher fishing mortality rates than small pelagic stocks. The subsector of breeding and cultivation of aquatic animals and plants for ornamental use is a well-established economic activity widely distributed around the world. 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